Warning; Antifreeze Poisons Pets

Screenwash

Following on from yesterday’s blog, I decided to inform you of another dangerous wintry household item; Antifreeze.

Antifreeze is found in most car owner’s houses/ garages or in their car either as a screen wash or a spray to defrost the windscreen

Ethylene glycol is the main ingredient in most types of antifreeze.  This is a very dangerous poison killing more than 73% of cats and 35% of dogs who have drunk it.  Only 6-7ml of diluted antifreeze can kill the average cat.  Ethylene glycol tastes sweet so if any drips on the floor or a bottle is left lying your pet may drink it.  The key to preventing your pets being poisoned is by ensuring you leave no drips or puddles around after filling up your car and checking for puddles around your neighbour’s cars.  If you have outdoor cats it is worth enlightening your neighbours to the dangers of antifreeze; why not share this blog with them?

Are my Pets at Risk?

Outdoor cats are more at risk of Antifreeze poisoning as you may not be there to stop them drinking any puddles.  However, any animal with access to where this is stored or to a car either leaking antifreeze or that has recently been filled up may be at risk.

Stop your dog from drinking from puddles as these may also contain antifreeze.

Sheep Dog
Sheep dog in a wet farmyard where there may be antifreeze
How Does Antifreeze Poison Dogs and What are the Signs?

Antifreeze is absorbed into the bloodstream after being drunk.  Once it is in the blood produces crystals.  These crystals block up the small blood vessels in the kidneys which injure the kidneys before causing kidney failure over time.

Antifreeze poisoning causes the following symptoms soon after an animal drinks it;

  • vomiting.
  • being wobbly (ataxia).
  • fast heartbeat (tachycardia).
  • seizures (“fits”).
  • incontinence (not being able to control their bladder or bowels leading to them urinating or defaecating without realising.  The can’t help this so DON’T punish them).
  • dehydration.
  • being very thirsty (they will drink a lot if they have access to water).

Over the next few hours, your pet’s symptoms will worsen leading on to the following;

  • Their Heart beating beat even faster,
  • Rapid breathing or panting (tachypnoea) as fluid goes into and around their lungs making it hard to breathe.
  • Become depressed/ lethargic.
  • Fall unconscious/ into a coma

If untreated, or with inadequate treatment, your pet’s kidneys are likely to be so severely damaged that treatments available to most vets won’t make them improve though may improve their welfare.

Guinea Pig
Guinea Pigs and other animals can be affected too
What will The Vet Do?

Your vet is likely to take blood and water samples to see how badly their kidneys have been affected.  If you take your dog to the vets within the first two hours of drinking antifreeze, they may give your dog a medication called Apomorphine. Apomorphine doesn’t work well in cats but it causes dogs to vomit.  If there is any antifreeze in their stomach, making your dog vomit will get some of it out and prevent it from being absorbed.  Apomorphine can, however, cause dogs to become wobbly and sleepy.  Vets may try other medications to make your cat vomit such as some sedatives.

Often with poisons, vets will syringe-feed animals with a black liquid called Activate Charcoal.  Activated charcoal binds to a lot of poisons and stops them being absorbed into the body.  However, activated charcoal doesn’t bind to ethylene glycol so isn’t a treatment for antifreeze poisoning.

The most effective way of stopping ethylene glycol causing further damage is for a vet to give your pet accurate doses of medical grade ethanol directly into their vein.  Ethanol prevents Ethylene Glycol from doing the damage to cells as it blocks its path.  However, giving dogs ethanol is very dangerous and illegal for anyone but a vet to do so don’t try and treat your animal yourself; it will NOT help and may increase their chances of dying.

For Ethanol treatment to be fully effective, it must be given carefully and at specific doses for several days.  Your pet will stay in the hospital throughout this treatment.

Vets will likely put your pet on a drip to keep them hydrated. Ethylene glycol also causes the blood to become acidic which is also very dangerous and can affect their heart and breathing.  Blood pH can be monitored and treated but treatment with Ethanol alone will not help this.A dog lying in bed

They’ve survived; is it all over?

If your pet is one of the lucky ones to survive and but wasn’t treated correctly immediately they will almost always have kidney failure.  Kidney failure can be helped by medications and prescription diets but the kidneys cannot be repaired. Though they’ll have kidney failure for the rest of their lives, if it is managed correctly you pet may continue to have happy and fulfilled lives.  However, your pet should ideally have blood and urine tests at least every six to twelve months (depending on their health and your vet’s advice) to check their kidney function.  These blood/ urine tests will tell your vet whether the treatment is helping or not and if it may need changing.

If there’s any doubt that your pet has drunk ANY antifreeze/ screenwash you must take them to a vet immediately.

Dog looking away from the camera

Take Home Message

Nothing you can do at home helps Ethylene Glycol poisoning.  Animals poisoned by, or suspected to have drunk, Ethylene Glycol must see a vet immediately.

 

If you’ve found this blog useful then please share it; it may save lives.

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Author: Kim Halford

I'm a qualified vet and animal behaviour and welfare advisor. I am dedicated to improving the welfare of animals. I also want to work with organisations to improve the education of animal welfare and behaviour as well as improve the bond between animal and owner.

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