Methods Animals Communicate with Each Other; Basics

The Different Types of Communication

Communication is present between all animals and, at a microscopic level,  all living cells.  It tends to be species-specific meaning the communication of one species often can only be fully understood by members of the same species; in some respects like people across the world speaking different languages.  Several forms of communication exist which I will broadly introduce throughout the rest of this post.  These are; Vocalisation/ Verbal communication, body language and chemical/ olfactory communication which I imagine the majority of people know little to nothing about.  Alongside this is tactile communication which is where humans/ animals communicate through touch.

 

Most people associate the word communication purely with one type; speech or verbal communication.  Speech is a type of verbal communication used by humans. Whilst speech is widely used between people and towards animals, it plays only a minor role in how non-human animals communicate.

Communication is often similar between species but may be very different

People also use non-verbal communication such as body language.  Body language consists of changes in posture, actions and facial expression.  Most people are adept at reading basic facial expressions however those with neuro-developmental conditions such as Autistic Spectrum Disorder may struggle or unable to read them.

Most animals can read facial expressions amongst their own species but cannot read those of other species which can lead to issues including fighting if two different species are housed together; something still regularly occurring with rabbits and guinea pigs.  Facial expressions between species often do bear some resemblance (though can mean very different things at times) between different species as an artefact of our evolutionary history; as at one point was communicated by Charles Darwin.

The situation between the inability for animals to read the facial expressions of other species is a bit different between dogs and people though.  Our relationship with the domesticated dog and the time we spent together throughout domestication has uniquely lead to many dogs possessing the ability to read our, and especially their owners, facial expression and body language to some degree.  This is one factor leading to the so-called “guilty expressions” that dogs appear to show when they face their owners after performing an inappropriate behaviour (such as emptying the bin or chewing up the sofa); dog’s don’t possess the ability to feel guilt, they are, instead, just displaying this behaviour out of the expectation they are in trouble based upon past experience and their owners body language +/- tone of voice.

Selective breeding may have also lead to those with more traits for this recognition being bred more, thus passing it down to their offspring.  However, the connection between humans and dogs is a very unique one and this recognition of body language is not seen among different species to the same extent.

 

Vocalisation/ Verbal Communication

Though many non-human animals vocalise especially when communicating across long distances (such as warning the rest of their herd of predators), it is usually less commonly displayed than it is between people.

 

Wolves howl to vocally communicate with others

Vocal communication is often thought of as speech but it any noise leaving the mouth of an animal.  No animals have the same complexity to this communication as humans have, even primates, and whilst some parrots appear to talk, they purely mimic the people around them and don’t understand the sounds they produce.

Some animals, especially prey species, remain very quiet such as the rabbit, whereas others have noisy calls and cries such as the dog’s bark and the wolf’s howl (which remains in a few dog breeds).  Some animals have an array of different sounds such as guinea pigs who vocalise a lot with numerous different types.

Whilst other species appear to have developed new vocalisations during domestication.  Wildcats have been observed to purr but generally not to meow.  Meowing is believed to be a vocalisation pattern cats developed, through selective breeding and learning as a kitten, to attract the owner and get them to do what they want them to.  This adaptation demonstrates that an animal’s communication can diversify to meet the situation.

 

Body Language

The most common way animals communicate with both ourselves and others.

A snarl both makes a sound and changes the look of the face to pass a communicate unhappiness to those around

Poor communication or the presence of miscommunication (possibly due to the mixing of two or more species), may cause fights to break out.  Miscommunication is often seen between the animal kingdom and ourselves; chimps for instance, “smile” when afraid.  Humans view chimpanzees as being similar to themselves and see this behaviour as a human smile and believe they are happy when the opposite is true. What we think of as a smiling chimp is one displaying a fear grimace; the chimp is scared and they feel threatened by us smiling at them.

Lop-eared rabbits have reduced body language as they are not able to freely move their ears

Body language can be subtle with just hair standing on end (piloerection) occurring either just in a particular area or over the whole body, or the movement of some whiskers or be more obvious such as a snarling dog.  Whether subtle or more obvious, the animal may be trying to communicate something of true importance and so paying attention to any body language is very important.

 

Body language can also be miscommunicated between animals of the same species.  This may be the case if an animal is, for whatever reason, isn’t adept at interpreting body language such as if they have been isolated from those of their own species.  Another reason, which is seen with dogs in particular, could be from modifications to their body.  Dogs communicate with many different parts of their body, including the position or movement of their ears and tail.  If dogs have their tails docked and/ or their ears cropped the language they can display may be affected and therefore may be misinterpreted.  Those with very long hair may also struggle as the movement of particular parts of their body may not be easily visible to others.

This dog’s hair gets in the way of seeing subtle movements of much of the body and blocks their sight too

Chemical/ Olfactory Communication

Under all different circumstances, each individual cell releases chemicals/ compounds/ hormones to interact with the surrounding cells.  The surrounding cells receive these, often as a signal, allowing the body to react appropriately to the current scenario.

Cat demonstrating the flehman response whereby they ensure pheromones pass to the vomeronasal organ

Along with cells releasing chemicals to act upon other cells, certain areas of the body release chemical signals to send messages to the surrounding animals.

 

Some of these signals may be scents, such as urine helps mark out a territory in dogs due to other dogs smelling it.  Other signals released by one animal may affect other animals but do not a smell to them; these are known as pheromones.  Different pheromones affect animals in different ways. Some calm them down whilst others help them detect when a female animal is in season (“on heat”).

The flehman response of a horse allows them to detect pheromones

Pheromones are usually detected in an organ within the nose (the vomeronasal-organ) where signals are then sent to the brain.  Different animals get pheromones into their Vomeronasal organ through different methods; dogs flick their tongue against part of their mouth whereas others wrinkle their noses up and stretch their necks really long, lifting their heads and noses high in the air.  These are known as the Flehman response.

A tapir demonstrates their flehman response

There are also some chemical signals which are neither a scent or pheromone.  One of these includes a protein released in the milk called Alpha S1-Casein (or variants of that depending on the species).  This calms down infant animals after suckling.  A synthetic version (Alpha- Casazephine, derived from Alpha-S1 casein from cows milk) is now produced as a food supplement to reduce anxiety if used for several days.

 

Cats and dogs both release pheromones, the main ones being Dog Appeasing Pheromone (DAP), and the Feline Facial pheromones. These, amongst others, can help them to both create territories or calm them down which can then also be used synthetically to alter behaviour in different circumstances and are available in different forms.  These will be discussed more in-depth in another post.

Suckling animals receive compounds in their mother’s milk to calm them down

The Round Up.

This is just a basic introduction to the ways in which animals communicate and is nowhere near exhaustive.  This post is just to demonstrate how complex communication is and why it is difficult to completely follow and understand.

 

I will follow this up with further posts looking at different types of communication and how these are carried out in different animals.

Fourteen Signs of Pain in Guinea Pigs

Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus) are very common pets.  The interactions between themselves and people and them being easy to tame means they’re often sought after as pets.

Guinea Pigs are naturally prey animals and to stop themselves being caught by predators they hide signs of pain and illness really well, similar to the rabbit.  When scared, guinea pigs tend to freeze, a process known as tonic immobility, rather than show obvious behaviours of pain or fear.

Pain in guinea pigs often shows as very different to our own people often overlook it and don’t usually realise it’s due to pain.  People naturally associate how humans react to pain and expect painful animals to cry out which often is not the case.  When people don’t recognise the signs of pain in their pet they often misinterpret it, sometimes believing their pet doesn’t feel pain in the same level or some things which are painful to us don’t hurt them. Usually, this is not the case, they experience pain just demonstrate it in a different way. Species such as cats, dogs, and rabbits all experience pain the same but the signs they show are unique to the species (though there are some similarities present).

 

Though Guinea Pigs are common pets, as well as sadly being used as lab animals in potentially painful procedures, the symptoms they show when in pain still haven’t been fully studied and are often unknown.  Throughout this blog I will explore already known or highly suspected the signs of pain in guinea pigs  I’m hoping this will help you identify if your guinea pig is ever in pain.

1.Change in Posture

This is a very consistent sign and shown in various ways depending where the pain in a guinea pig is.

Having the back arched is seen with other species such as the dog.  This is seen if they have belly ache for instance if their guts are not working properly or they’ve had surgery like neutering.  They stand or walk with their bodies very tense and their spines curved over making their back appear rounded rather than flat.

Changes in posture are also seen when lying.  Normally guinea pigs lay with their back legs tucked under them. Pain in guinea pigs from their spine, belly or legs may lead to them holding one or both back legs stretched out behind them or splayed to the side.

Remember healthy guinea pigs sometimes alter their position even when not in pain.  When looking for signs of pain you need see if they are in this position lot or are also showing other signs of pain.

  1. Squeaking/ Screaming (AKA Vocalising)

Sometimes, with sudden pain, guinea pigs may make loud and high-pitched squeaks which sound different and often lasting longer than their normal lower pitched noises.

They don’t always cry out when in pain, but sudden, intense types of pain rather than aching pains can cause this.  One example is if a sore part of their skin is touched or if they hit a sore leg against something.

If you’re only trying to identify pain through them making noises, you’ll miss it most of the time.  Lack of noise doesn’t mean their pain is less severe.  Pains which are grumbling away often don’t lead to them crying out.

  1. Eating less and Weight Loss

When you’re feeling unwell you don’t want to eat as much and, to some extent, that’s the same in Guinea Pigs.  Guinea Pigs enjoy eating and spend much of their day eating.

When in pain, guinea pigs often eat less but may still readily accept treats they like when offered.

Guinea Pigs may still eat treats when in pain

 

Guinea Pigs eating less usually isn’t noticed instantly, usually, it’s only noticed the next time you feed them where you will likely find more leftovers than usual.  Monitoring eating as a sign of pain can be difficult and inaccurate because you’re likely to only realise they’re in pain after several hours have passed by which point they may have improved or have suffered in a lot of pain in the meantime, adversely affecting their welfare.

  1. Drinking Less

Similar to eating, pain in guinea pigs may be seen as them being uninterested in drinking.  This doesn’t necessarily mean they stop drinking altogether, but, they drink less and noticed when you change their water.  Therefore, this sign, like with eating less, may not be that helpful by the time you notice.

Noticing your guinea pig eating or drinking less and possibly losing weight gives you a clue they’re not feeling 100%.  Once you notice this behaviour change it’s worth looking for other signs of pain to help decide if they are in pain or what else is occurring.

  1. Unkempt Coat and Grooming Less

Any animal in pain tends to stop grooming themselves either because they don’t well enough due to the pain or their pain worsens in positions needed to properly groom themselves.  As Guinea Pigs don’t groom consistentlyand may groom themselves when hiding, this sign is difficult to spot.

With pain in Guinea Pigs it’s not always easy to notice a reduction in the time spent doing a relatively sporadic behaviour.

The first way you may notice your guinea pigs aren’t grooming fully is due to their coat looking unkempt.  It may be dirtier than usual, full of dandruff or, if long-haired, there may be more knots in it.  A guinea pig’s coat being unkempt takes a while to develop and become visible with the guinea pig being in pain for some time (usually longer than twelve hours) before their hair gets to the state where it’s noticeable, before then there often won’t be a visible change in the coat at all.

Guinea pigs may be in sore when touched
  1. Moving Less and Lying More

When in pain, any movements can worsen the pain so animals tend to stay still to avoid further pain.  Pain is also tiring leading to your guinea pig lying down and sleeping more.

Along with lying and moving less to avoid pain, your guinea pig will be scared due to the pain.  When guinea pigs are scared they tend to freeze their body.

Pain in guinea pigs are likely to make them quieter if you’re around due to increased fear that you’ll pick them up or touch them and them naturally hiding pain when in front of people.  Therefore, some will act normally if you’re watching them for signs of pain.

Guinea pigs moving less could be for many reasons such as stress from the surgery or due to medication side effects.  For instance, the pain killer, Buprenorphine, causes Guinea Pigs to lay more even when they’re in less pain so this can become confusing. Therefore, guinea pigs being quiet should not be interpreted as them always being in pain.

  1. Writhing/ Abdominal Contractions

Like in Rabbits, the signs of pain in guinea pigs are very subtle.  One of these is them writhing and having abdominal contractions.  Some abdominal contractions, to make it more difficult, can be normal in Guinea Pigs, however, these tend to worsen with pain.  Looking at them carefully and seeing contractions and them stretching their body out at the same time is likely due to pain, especially if they do it often.

  1. Flinching

Most animals flinch when in pain.  This is a sudden involuntary movement where the animal is trying to move away from whatever is causing the pain.  This may be from you if you try to touch them or they could be appearing to just flinch if nothing is near them due to pain within the body rather than just in the skin.  Flinching is more common with sudden and shocking pain rather than a duller constant pain.

Eating less is a sign of pain
When in pain, Guinea pigs often eat less

 

  1. Shaking

Pain in guinea pigs, either due to fear or adrenaline, may cause them to shake.  Shaking may be very difficult to see as it is only very subtle.

As shaking is a very subtle potentially due to not only pain but also medication side effects and stress, it is not the most reliable of signs.  Due to this if you see your guinea pig shaking you should keep an eye on them and monitor them for other problems to try and work out what their problem is.

  1. Paying Attention to a Painful Area

Like ourselves, if a guinea pig has a painful area they will tend to look at it or touch it.  Your guinea pig may groom, lick, scratch or chew at that area more which may be noticed by them having wet hair or it could even lead to the skin or hair being damaged in some cases.

  1. Moving slower

Pain in Guinea Pigs tends to worsen when they move.  Therefore, as a result, they tend to move slower.

Guinea pigs will tend to move slower, potentially an altered posture and moving more stiffly.  However, medications causing sedation such as painkillers or anaesthetics may cause your guinea pigs to move slower even without pain so they should be monitored for other signs of pain.

  1. Limping

Limping is only a sign of pain if the pain is in their legs or sometime in their spine.  Lameness is usually due to pain, especially if it suddenly comes on, however in some cases it could be due to other problems such nerve or muscle problems.

Whichever leg your guinea pig is limping on is likely the one causing the pain. If they’re in pain with several legs, then the one they’re limping on is likely the most painful.

Not all guinea pigs in pain will be limping.  Also, even if they are in pain and are limping they may show no further signs of pain than the limping.

Metacam is tasty!
Carl nibbling on the Metacam  (a painkiller) Syringe

 

  1. Cage Bar- Biting

    Rodents normally chew but this can worsen or change when stressed.

    Most happy, healthy guinea pigs don’t chew their cage bars a lot unless they are stressed or bored.  If they suddenly start cage-biting it’s a sign something isn’t normal.

    Once they start cage-biting it is important for you to find the cause and try to treat it or correctly alter their behaviour whenever possible.

    Though you can buy foul-tasting liquids to spray on cage bars to prevent chewing.  This just acts as a deterrent and is unlikely to stop them chewing in the long term.  Also, chewing is only a sign of another underlying problem in a lot of cases so you need to discover what this is, correct it and then try to resolve their chewing if it continues.

  2.  Grinding Teeth (Bruxism)

 

Guinea Pigs sometimes grind their teeth when their mouths or teeth are sore.  This is usually the case if their teeth are overgrown or not meeting properly so some grow more than others.

If your guinea pig is grinding their teeth you need to see your vet ASAP as issues with their teeth/ mouth stop them eating properly, leading to other health problems.

The summary

The signs of pain in Guinea Pigs are very subtle and still poorly understood.

Unlike rabbits, mice, rats and other species, no long has studied the effects of pain on facial expression to aid with grading pain.  There are some easier signs to detect such as limping or crying out but otherwise you need to focus on subtle signs which, each on their own, could be unrelated to pain by being related to behavioural or medical issues or are a result of medication side effects.

The best way to detect signs of pain in guinea pigs is to look out for all potential signs and, if they show any, then try to identify if others are present, monitor them and look for the cause.

 

If your guinea pig show signs of pain you should take them to your vet.  Your vet can help to work out if they are in pain, where this is and then diagnose and treat them.

 

With Guinea Pigs, just being stressed from pain or them eating less can cause other health problems, some of which may be fatal.  This means trying to resolve pain not only improves your guinea pig’s welfare but, if you don’t they could become very ill.

Finally, the signs of pain fit into a couple of big groups, normal behaviours they have stopped doing (such as being active or eating) and pain behaviours they have started (such as writhing or sleeping).  It must be remembered that Guinea Pigs hide pain when people are around, so it can be very hard to spot; even if you only see a pain behaviour performed a couple of times it may suggest a major problem.

Final Words

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If you have any questions regarding pain, guinea pigs or something else entirely feel free to ask in the comments below or, otherwise, contact me directly via my form.

Dealing with Firework Fear in Dogs

Around New Year’s Eve or Bonfire Night, many dog owners worry about how their dogs will react to fireworks.  There’s a huge spectrum of how dogs react to fireworks; some happily watch them out of the window whilst others remain in their beds shaking due to fear.  In this blog, I will look the causes of firework phobia and different ways to help it.

Dog stood up
Dogs have sensitive ears, eyes and noses.
Dogs Ears and Nose are VERY Sensitive

People in the UK know the weeks surrounding bonfire night are filled with people setting off fireworks, sometimes from as early as mid-September.  Over the last two decades letting fireworks off at midnight (or before children go to bed) on New Years Eve has become very popular. People are aware of these traditions and every year we know it will happen.  Our dogs, on the other hand, aren’t aware of these patterns and don’t know what fireworks are.  To them, a bang is not supposed to be there, a sudden noise which is out of the ordinary which may be due to danger.  Their ears are more sensitive than ours and they can hear a much wider range of noises.  This means that to them fireworks will not only be much louder but they may also sound different as there may be pitches the dog can hear but a human can’t.  Dog’s can hear sounds that are four-times farther than with humans so they can hear fireworks that we can’t.

Fireworks also create a smell.  The smell of explosives and burning is unpleasant and one which dog’s, like people, do not enjoy.  To them, this is magnified as their noses are at least 1000 times more sensitive than our own.

Along with dogs smelling fireworks more clearly and hearing them louder and possibly different to us, they will hear ones which we cannot.  Therefore, if you dogs are terrified around bonfire night but you don’t hear any fireworks, that may still be the problem.

Farm Border Collie
Bring dogs inside when there are fireworks
Dogs Don’t Know What Fireworks Are

If something behind you made a loud bang or smashes, you’d jump and turn around.  You were startled and momentarily surprised so looked around to see what happened but relaxed when you found out you were safe.  If this were to start happening over and over again though you’d probably get a bit anxious.

 

Well, dogs are the same.  Loud bangs from fireworks, which are louder to them than us, do not make sense to them.  They don’t know what fireworks are or that they won’t hurt them so they become anxious or scared.  Dogs evolved over hundreds of thousands of years to react to loud bangs and horrible smells as they may be dangerous.  They believe this is the case with fireworks so their natural reaction is to become stressed and anxious with some developing phobias.

 

Multi-coloured firework
Fireworks look pretty but sound quite scary
Signs Your Dog is Scared of Fireworks
  1. Your dog is much quieter than usual and/ or they’re hidden.
  2. They’re shaking in their bed.
  3. They’re urinating when in the house when they wouldn’t normally.
  4. They are running around like mad rapidly looking around each time there is a bang, often panting and possibly shaking.
  5. They have stopped reacting to you when you’re shouting or looking at them.
  6. They are whining and crying.
  7. They have been scratching around a door as if they want to go out or chewing on something when they wouldn’t usually.
  8. They won’t settle, play or eat.
Firework distraction
You can put the TV to distract your dog from the fireworks
What can Help Your Dog Get Used to Fireworks
  1. Stay with them when there’s a lot of fireworks.
  2. Make sure all the windows and doors are shut; reduces the noise and smell.
  3. Closing the curtains reduces the flashing.
  4. Keeping the TV or radio on; the noise disguises the fireworks and helps them focus on something else.
  5. Keep an area where they can retreat and be undisturbed. Covering their bed to create a “fort” will give them space to relax.
  6. Provide at least one resting place/ bed per animal, plus an extra. They can all relax at the same time without any fighting to get into a quiet spot.
  7. Reassure and talk to your dogs to make sure they are OK.
  8. Do NOT act like overly concerned or fussy.  Though this may seem like it will help your pet will sense there’s something to fear.  They may become more
  9. anxious and this may continue into the future
  10. Don’t walk them when fireworks are set off; the noise will be louder and the area will smell more so your dog will be more likely to react.
  11. Keep children away from your dogs.  If a dog is messed with when they are scared they are more to bite whoever is messing with them.
  12. Stick to a Routine.  If your dog usually gets fed at six O’ clock then keep to that time even if there are fireworks.  Stable routines will help them relax even if the situation is otherwise stressful.  Leave their food dog; if your dog doesn’t eat they can come back for their food later.
  13. Socialise your puppies and expose them to different sounds when young; around eight to sixteen weeks.  This is the easiest time for them to adapt.  Sounds Scary (see later) may be used for this.
  14. Be Prepared.  Find out where and when local firework displays.  Talk to your
    neighbours and see if they will be setting any off and discuss with them whether they can use quiet ones.

These tips only help with dogs who do not have a phobia of fireworks. The information below explains how to help dogs who are fearful or phobic around fireworks.

Relaxed Tess in Bed
Only put Sounds Scary on when your dog is calm; see below

 

Firework Phobia CANNOT Be Solved Overnight

Over the years, hoards of people have brought their firework phobic dogs to me just before Bonfire Night or on 30th December.  These owners hoped I’d just give them something to stop their dogs being scared of the fireworks.  Many of these also want to go out to see the fireworks, leaving the dog alone.

In reality, this doesn’t work.  Yes, vets may be able to sedate dogs so they don’t react to fireworks but that’s a short-term solution to a long-term problem.  Dogs being sedated once will not stop them being scared of fireworks the next time.  Fears take a lot of time and work for both humans and animals to get over.  It can take weeks of training for dogs scared of fireworks to remain calm around them and it doesn’t work with all dogs.  Helping dogs requires the owner to spend their time helping and reassuring their dog and putting things in place to help them.  Also, dogs whose firework fear improves may still be scared of them and, over time, their phobia may come back.  Keeping their fear at bay is a long-term commitment where they may need training on and off forever.

Quite a few different ways of helping dogs with their firework phobia exist.  Not all methods work for all dogs or owners so if you try one and it doesn’t help then try another.

Speaker
You can play Sounds Scary through a Bluetooth speaker
Sounds Scary

Sounds Scary is a method of systematic desensitisation or habituation.  It is a number of soundtracks of firework noises to play when your dog is relaxed.  You should first play the tracks very quietly so they can hardly be heard, and with time you gradually increase the volume ONLY if your dog is calm.

The aim of “Sounds Scary” is for your dog to get used to the sound of fireworks and recognise that there’s nothing to be afraid of.  Over time they shall remain relaxed with the soundtrack so will no longer fear real fireworks.

This process takes time and every dog reacts differently.  The soundtrack shouldn’t just be put on for five minutes at a time but for longer periods and the volume raised only when your dog is COMPLETELY relaxed.  If the volume is increased too quickly or when your dog is stressed it can overwhelm or scare them.  Developing a fear of the soundtrack will worsen their anxiety requiring you to start Sounds Scary from the beginning again. Sounds Scary should be used daily, often needing to be played for a number of weeks until your dog isn’t affected by loud firework sounds.  Even when your dog is unaffected by loud firework sounds it is still worthwhile to play the soundtracks every so often to ensure they still remain calm.  If your dog your dog appears anxious with the soundtrack or real fireworks at any point, restart the training.

Sounds Scary is available for download, along with a guide explaining the program, from the Dog’s Trust website.  I strongly recommend reading the guide before training with Sounds Scary.

Tess at the kitchen door
Scared or playing? Definitely not calm
ThunderShirt

A ThunderShirt is a dog coat which applies a constant pressure to the skin. This constant pressure affects the sensory receptors in the skin and calms your dog down.  This either works by giving your dog something else to upon or the release of endorphins (feel-good chemicals).

ThunderShirts work for a large variety of fears and behavioural issues.  They are similar to autistic people becoming calm when under weighted blankets.    ThunderShirts reduce stress in up to 80% of dogs without the use of medications/ supplements.  Though they don’t need to be worn for a specific time period, I’d recommend putting it on your dog before fireworks start.  I advise this as once your dog is stressed it may not be possible to put the ThunderShirt on safely and calmly.

Stereo
Sounds Scary can be played on a stereo or music/ radio can be played when fireworks are being lit elsewhere

 

Adaptil

Adaptil is a chemical similar to Dog Appeasing Pheromone.  Dog Appeasing Pheromone (DAP) is a pheromone (a chemical animals release to send messages to others through smell) produced between the teats of dogs when puppies are suckling. DAP calms the puppies down.  Adaptil is so similar to DAP it also calms dogs when it is released into the air.

Adaptil is sold either as a spray, a diffuser fitting into an electrical socket or a collar.  All forms work in the same way but some take longer to work than others.  The spray, for instance, when sprayed around a room spreads quicker than DAP released from a diffuser but it doesn’t last as long.  The collar is good if only one needs DAP.  The collar constantly releases DAP around that dog but it doesn’t diffuse around the room.  It, therefore, wouldn’t affect other dogs unless they are constantly next to each other.

Like all products, Adaptil doesn’t work on all dogs and doesn’t work instantly.  I’d recommend using it for a few days before fireworks are expected.  This will allow it to fully diffuse and affect your dog(s).

For DAP to be rapidly effective you could combine a spray and a diffuser.  It will cover a room quickly with spray and whilst lasting longer with a diffuser.  However, if you have only one dog, a DAP collar will also work rapidly.

Dog with toy
Rocky playing with his toy; toys can be a distraction from fireworks
Supplements

A number of supplements may be bought to calm your dog down.  Every dog’s body works differently so some supplements may work well on one dog and not affect others.  There are quite a few supplements available but I’ll only mention three here.

Zylkene appears to works very well on some dogs but doesn’t help others.  It is similar to a calming chemical in the mother’s milk and calms dogs when they take it.  Zylkene doesn’t work straight away. You should give it to your dog for 7+days before fireworks are expected and every day whilst fireworks are going on.  Zylkene, therefore, may have to be taken for over a month.  Whilst it is impossible to know whether it will work on your dog before using it, it is very safe and doesn’t cause side effects.

Nutracalm is only available from veterinary surgeries but doesn’t need a prescription.  Like Zylkene, this supplement is safe and effective for many dogs, but it doesn’t work with them all and it isn’t a sedative. Unlike Zylkene, it acts quickly, calming your dog within an hour and it doesn’t need to be given daily.  Whilst Zylkene contains one active ingredient, Nutracalm contains several including; L-Tryptophan causing sleepiness and GABA, a calming chemical in the brain.  These and other ingredients in it are naturally within the body.  Nutracalm containing several active ingredients means it doesn’t rely on a dog responding to just one.  Dogs only need to respond to one of the ingredients in it so it may help more dogs, however, it doesn’t help everyone.  It also isn’t a sedative.  Nutracalm should be given an hour before fireworks as it’s less effective if given whilst your dog is stressed.

YuCalm, like NutraCalm, helps calm dogs using several ingredients.  YuCalm contains L-theanine helping the body produce more Serotonin (a relaxing chemical in the brain), Lemon Balm to increase GABA in the brain (calms dogs) and finally fish proteins which alter GABA and dopamine levels (two brain chemicals which calm the dog).  However,  similar to Zylkene, YuCalm does not work immediately.  It needs to be fed to your dog this daily for 3-6weeks before your it helps to calm your dog.  Due to this, you would have to start giving this ideally six weeks before fireworks are expected.

Sedatives

If you’ve tried training, supplements and ThunderShirts but your dog is still very fearful of fireworks, the next step is trying sedatives.  These should NOT be the first thing option as they can be dangerous due to side effects.  Sedatives also don’t phobias, the just calm dogs down whilst they are effective and won’t help in the long term.

 

The main sedative prescribed is Diazepam.  Diazepam acts on the brain to calm your dog down but may slow the heart and breathing.  It can also cause dogs to be sleepy and wobbly.  Diazepam cannot be used all the time as it is no longer effective and can cause them a physical addiction.  Though Diazepam is very effective in a lot of dogs, they don’t work as well in some dogs.  It can also cause confusion potentially causing dogs to become aggressive around people.  Diazepam works very quickly, often within 20minutes and lasts between three and twelve hours depending on the dog.  If your dog is prescribed these you need to stay with your dog after they have eaten them, at least the first time.  This is to make sure that your dog doesn’t become ill and to check they help.  If diazepam causes bad side effects or is ineffective you need to speak to your vet about what to do.

ACP (AKA Acepromazine) used to be used for phobias though it is no longer recommended. ACP is purely a sedative and affects the heart, lungs and brain, causing dogs to seem calm and they no longer react as much.  However, ACP doesn’t reduce the fear dogs experience (whereas diazepam does).  This means when a dog is on ACP they will still be as scared of fireworks but won’t look concerned and so their owners will believe they are not scared.  Treating phobias with ACP, therefore, is a welfare concern and can worsen the phobia over time.  Finally, every dog acts differently to ACP; some dogs stop breathing whilst it causes Boxers to faint.

Other medications (eg Fluoxetine or Clomicalm) may be advised for anxiety.  Describing these in more detail isn’t necessary here.  They aren’t useful as sedatives as they must be used for several weeks before they help and they cause other side effects. I’ve mentioned these purely because they are great options for some dogs with severe anxiety/ phobias. So, if your dog is really fearful and nothing else will help discuss this with your vet to see if anything else may help.

 

If you don’t know where to turn and have problems with a pet and want further advice then feel free to check out the services I offer or contact me for further info.

 

Welcome!

Who Am I?

My name is Kim.  I qualified as a Veterinary Surgeon in 2011 after studying at the Royal Veterinary College in London.  I then worked as a small animal vet for five years.

In August I completed my Masters Degree in Applied Animal Behaviour and Welfare at Newcastle University.

Bam; Leopard Gecko
What do my Qualifications Mean?

I know (most of) your animals from inside out, both what’s going on in their organs and what makes them tick.  I also know their welfare needs based on their species and situation.

I can predict how an animal will react something they need is lacking and give suggestions (which can be as down-to-earth or as wacky as you want) on how to solve any deficits in their welfare to improve their physical and mental wellbeing.

Darwin as a juvenile; Leopard Gecko
Can I Understand things From an Owners Point of View?

I am also a pet owner and am not restricted to the conventional species.

My more “conventional” pet is Carl, a guinea pig I adopted after performing a couple of operations on him, most notably removing his right eye due to severe damage and infection which couldn’t be treated any other way.

Leo; Leopard Gecko

The pets that tend to pique others interests more are my three lizards.  Firstly I own Leo, a geriatric Leopard Gecko (Eublepharis macularis) I rehomed from my cousin around six years ago.

Second up is Darwin.  Darwin is also a Leopard Gecko and is coming up three.  She is a lot smaller than Leo, about half the size in fact partly because Leo is huge.  She also has completely different markings to him due to her breeding; she is Hypomelanistic which means she has fewer spots than a “wild-type” like Leo.

Last but not least, I own a  Crested Gecko (Correlophus ciliatus) called Dallas (AKA Dal) who is around four and is the guy in the banner on this site.

Dallas; Crested Gecko
Have I Had any other Pets?

I have owned several rescue dogs and sometimes look after my parent’s Jack Russell Cross, Rocky, who is around twelve.  As a teen and throughout most of my twenties I owned a dog called Tess who was my best friend.

Rocky

 

When I was younger I also owned hamsters (both Russian Dwarf and Syrian (AKA Golden) and gerbils.  Sadly, I haven’t owned any cats though really like their personalities and independent nature.  I do have experience with them from the places that I’ve worked and had a farm cat who was obsessed with me.

Tess

 

Finally, though I haven’t owned any, I worked at a riding school throughout my teenage years caring for up to fifteen horses at a time and knowing each one’s quirks as well as learning to ride and teaching others to both ride and care for horses.

Peter

 

What Are My Passions?

I am very passionate about aiding the care and welfare of animals, both from a physical and psychological viewpoint.  To improve the standards of animal welfare as much as possible I want to educate others about the welfare needs of a wide-range of species, both domesticated and not.

 

I am also passionate about reducing the abuse, either intentional or not, caused by humans towards animals.  I hope to do this through explaining to people both the positive and negative issues facing animals today and allowing people to explore those further and pass their knowledge on to others.

Carl; Guinea Pig

 

What is the Purpose of this Blog?

My aim is for the ordinary pet owner to find this blog both educational and entertaining.  I will discuss the care of different species, current affairs in the animal world and give light of what I’m doing and some of the adventures I have and the animals I meet along the way.  This is here as a resource but also as a conversation starter which will hopefully get you inspired to read on or spread the word.

Darwin; Leopard Gecko
Final Words

I hope I’ve introduced this blog well.  As I progress over the coming weeks if there are any animal related subjects/ items you want me to explore then feel free to leave a comment or drop me an email (kim@animalwelfarematters.co.uk) and I’ll look into the topic further.