Adopting Ralph the Guinea Pig

Carl’s the Guines Pig’s Early Days

Two years ago, pretty much to the day, I was operating on Carl, a black seventeen-week old guinea pig.  This was the second time I’d operated on him within eleven weeks.  The first surgery I removed his eye and, following months of complications I then closed up the wound during the second surgery.  One week prior I had considered I adopting Carl if no one else was and, during the surgery, I decided I was definite rehoming him.  On that hectic Sunday, as I was sat writing up the last of my clinical notes for the day he was in an open box next to me coming around from the anaesthetic.  This is the start of the journey to adopt Ralph, a long journey!

Guinea pig plastic surgery
Carl after his second surgery sporting his stitches and shaved face

Having adopted Carl, my interesting in guinea pigs grew further and during my MSc I did some work with Cavy Corner Guinea Pig rescue in Doncaster.  We both passed information to each other with me volunteering at some of their events.  I decided that should I adopt another Guinea Pig it would be from them.

Why Carl Was a Lone Pig for Two Years

I do not advocate housing guinea pigs alone. They not solitary species and should always be housed with other guinea pigs whenever possible. Saying that, I kept Carl by himself for almost 2 years. The reasons;

  • Carl was isolated for over guinea pigs from the age of eight weeks so I didn’t know how well he would reconnect with one.
  • Secondly, and the main reason, since before I adopted him, Carl suffered from upper airway infections which proved to be contagious having spread to a friend’s rabbit I sometimes care for. Initially he had flares very often, showing symptoms for several days at a time though, luckily, he always recovered without the need for antibiotics. Any stressful period he faced he suffered with another infection. However, over the last year these reduced in both severity and frequency, with him now not showing signs of them even when stressed.

 

Over the first year of having Carl, it became obvious that me getting him a friend would almost definitely cause him to have a severe bout of infection which would spread to whichever guinea pig I adopted. Therefore, at that point, the risks were really high and, given Carl had been isolated from eight weeks old, the chances of them not making friends of another guinea pig were quite high. It was decided that at that point the risks of getting a friend outweighed the potential benefits.

Guinea Pig in cage

Over the last six months, the tables have reversed that. It became clear Carl wanted friend and, the odd time he’s had an airway infection it is only been very mild. As a result, I decided it was time to try him with a friend.

Discussing Adoption

I contacted Sue at Cavy Corner regarding getting Carl a friend and Sue’s response was very positive. She was very happy about trying him with another guinea pig to see what would happen. However, when I first contacted her the time wasn’t right. I was away from home quite a bit so I wanted things to stabilise before I look to getting him a friend.

 

I stayed in contact with Sue over the weeks and had further discussion with her a few days after I volunteered at Cavy Corner’s most recent fun show. We discussed the possibilities of me getting a friend for Carl and how you go about this in a safe way; both of us deciding it would be a good idea.

 

From my point of view, the first step, order a bigger cage!

 

From Cavy Corner’s point of view, the first step; invite Carl around for a date!

Sue knew that due to

Carl chilling out

Carl’s airway infection and his previous experience of surgeries, I didn’t want him undergoing surgery unless he really needed it so I wasn’t fond of getting him castrated so it was decided to try and match him with a boar. Bonding two boars together is less successful bonding either to sows or a sow and boar but, I knew these risks. There was also a very high risk that Carl, having not been around guinea pigs for so long, would not appreciate the company of another guinea pig and, therefore, leaving him a lone guinea pig. But, I felt it was only fair to turn the decision over to Carl himself.

Carl Goes on a Date

One evening,  myself and Carl took a trip to Cavy Corner. We decided the best way to go about it was the Carl to stay in a separate room to the rest of the guinea pigs at cavy Corner to reduce the risk of his infection spreading; it spreading around the “Caviary” would have been a disaster. However, the chances of a successful bonding were higher if the bonding took place in a neutral environment such as at Cavy Corner. I sat and had a drink with Sue and just discussed what I was up to as well as what she was up to and all the guinea pigs at Cavy Corner I then went home, having left the Carl at Cavy Corner for the night.

 

It was a quiet night at home!

 

Putting Together the New Cage; Nightmare!

 

The next day there was a knock on the door; the new cage. A Ferplast Plaza 140; a flatpack cage. I’d read online reviews saying it took around 90 minutes to 2 hours to put the cage together. I didn’t believe it would take me that long. Having spent times putting many cages together when working at a pet shop in my early 20s (during a break from vet school) and mending cat cages as a vet, I decided after 20 minutes max I’d have it sorted.

An hour and half later I’d only just got it put together! It was a nightmare of a cage to put together.

All of the joints were really stiff and the instructions were unclear. However, once put together, it is a really nice cage which comes to pieces which, to some extent, should help with transporting it. I still struggle to get most of it apart which does make life more difficult when moving it.

The Result of the Bonding

The previous day, whilst at Cavy Corner, Sue asked me what the latest time I’d like to be contacted regarding whether Carl’s bonding was successful or not. My response, any time I don’t mind. Sue’s reply, “I’m often up till 3AM with the guinea pigs, I don’t think you want to be contacted at that time!” I then replied, any time up until midnight but I do want to sleep after then!

 

Sue contact me at around 11 o’clock the next day to inform me that Carl had a friend. My reply do we have a name.

 

“Ralph”

 

That is all I asked.  I didn’t really care about anything else.  I only wanted his name so I could refer to him in some way other than “the new pig”.

Bringing Ralph Home

I returned Cavy Corner later in the afternoon to meet Ralph, a mere nine week old tricolour guinea pig with a very very long nose, huge feet, and facial markings that make look like he has really long fringe!

 

Him and Carl were curled up together and getting on great.

 

After talking to Sue about Ralph and signing the forms, we arrived home and I put them both in the new cage for the first time and, within seconds they were both eating and remained very very calm. Definitely a successful bonding and I was very glad I got Carl a friend. It was obviously just what he needed. My only regret was that I hadn’t done this sooner.

Photo courtesy of Cavy Corner Guinea Rescue

Over the next three weeks Carl and Ralph got on great. Ralph was a very cheeky boy who, for the most part, got his own way. He stole food from Carl, pushed Carl out of bed, and always got the first lot of veg.

 

I also took to task with taming Ralph. This process has already started Cavy Corner but, with having been young, this wasn’t complete. Alongside this, Ralph hadn’t had the best start in life. He’d been adopted from a breeder who had too many guinea pigs and therefore had been neglected on that front.

Not all was Rosy; The Squabbles

Two months on, for the most part, Carl and Ralph are still getting on. As soon as I had owned Ralph for three weeks, coinciding with him hitting puberty at twelve weeks old, we faced some struggles. Before this point Ralph and Carl had never had a squabble but the testosterone surges within Ralph took over a bit and lead to a lot of arguing and some fighting. The opposite to what I thought, Carl is always the one to win fights. Before he was such a pushover but he obviously wanted to remain dominant. They were a rough couple of weeks but it all seems sorted for the most part now.  Carl is the boss but Ralph tries his luck and in some situations get his own way.

Ralph also has one huge benefit, the huge fluffy bed! Luckily for Ralph, Carl has never liked that bed so has never slept in it but Ralph hopped in it when he first arrived home and so it’s definitely his.

How Things Are Now

 

Ralph is still sometimes nervous of being handled but, is chill

 

ed out in virtually any other circumstance. I recently moved house so at times there was a lot of banging and Ralph didn’t even turn round throughout the noise, often sleeping straight through!

 

There is one problem left, when I first adopted Ralph I put twice as much food in the cage. Pretty much all of which was consumed by a very greedy Carl. Carl slammed on weight very quickly and is now very overweight. I have taken action and rationed their food.  I’m sure with Carl now on a diet and losing weight, he will slowly regain a waistline, but I’m not sure is completely happy about the reduced food!

 

Ralph is getting on well and has definitely retained his cheeky side!

Guinea Pigs Need to be Sociable

I want to reiterate that in almost all circumstances guinea pigs should be kept together. They are very sociable species and need to be able to interact with other guinea pigs, ideally within the same enclosure however, if you cannot bond your guinea pigs, the next best thing is for them to be in cages next to each other.  These will allow them to smell, see, verbally interact with, and possibly touch each other.

Carl in his fluffy bed!

Though they are a sociable species, they should only be housed with other guinea pigs. Housing them with other animals is inappropriate. Their body language and other methods of communication are different to those of other species, as is their diet. Many believe they can be housed with rabbits and they sometimes still are in pet shops but, rabbits being a lot bigger can hurt them. Also, the dietary requirements change with eat species and therefore they should be kept separately. Astonishingly I recently heard of someone housing guinea pigs and birds within the same cage! This is wholly inappropriate for both species and is likely going to cause a lot of fear amongst the two.

Guinea Pigs, like rabbits, do enjoy interacting with people either through gentle handling or talking to them.  Every little thing helps for them to remain happy, have interactions with others and settle with as little stress as possible.

Unless there is a strong medical or psychological standpoint, as was the original case with Carl, it is of utmost importance for guinea pigs to be housed with others.  On the odd occasion where this is impossible and a guinea pig has to be completely isolated from others of their species, housing them close to another mammal will provide some socialisation, interaction and enrichment to their lives.  If your guinea pig is alone it is of huge importance that you spend a lot of time with them to help with their need social needs.  However, it is important to realise that however sociable you are with your guinea pig, it will be nowhere near as beneficial to your pig as them having another guinea pig friend if at all possible.

A special thanks to everyone at, or supporting, Cavy Corner. You have all in some way helped with the rescue recuperation and adoption of my little tricoloured Ralph and, Carl’s increased, sustained happiness and welfare.

Photo courtesy of Cavy Corner Guinea Rescue

The more information on Cavy Corner Guinea Rescue, visit their website or Facebook page and, to discuss the care or possible adoption of a guinea pig contact Sue or Winston; details are on their website. Feel free to also ring them with any concerns about the welfare of any guinea pigs and they can give advice or support on these matters.  Alongside that, feel free to contact myself regarding the behavioural or social needs of animals.  I will also answer aim to answer any comments left below.

 

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Feeding Hay to Herbivorous Pets

Here I will be investigating the need to feed hay and it’s alternatives.  I will mostly cover small rodents and rabbits but will also mention farm animals and horses.

What is Hay?

Hay is dried grass.  It’s as simple as that.

It is usually cut from fields in the late Summer/ Early Autumn and then is sold throughout the rest of the year.  Hay can have differing colours with newly cut hay being a much greener colour than older hay.

The type of hay purely depends on the type of grass or crop that was cut and dried.

Hay can be cut to different lengths, made from different grasses and contain other plants. For instance, the hay I feed Carl contains Dandelion and Marigold.

Hay tends to be fed when either it’s not possible to feed grass all of the time or there isn’t enough grass.

Small animals such as rabbits, guinea pigs and chinchillas tend to be kept in cages with little access to grass much of the time.

With large animals such as horses or cattle, however, hay may be fed when there isn’t access to enough lush grass.  Though hay may not always be as good to feed as grass. The nutritional value of grass may reduce as it dries and it containing less water means more needs to be drunk.  However, as a replacement to grass, hay is usually completely fine.

 

Why is hay important?

Grass, hay or alternatives to hay is the staple dietary component for most herbivores.  Not only does this mean sheep, cows and horses need to eat it but also rabbits and guinea pigs.

 

These animals have digestive systems that rely on a very high fibre diet and a large amount of roughage (grasses/ hays) needs to pass through it to keep the guts moving.  If they stop eating this or don’t eat enough they are at risk of their guts stopping.  This is worsened by many of these animals being unable to vomit.

Why is this important?

Rabbits, for instance, groom lots so develop hairballs in their stomachs.  Unlike cats, rabbits are not able to vomit these back up leading to the potential for blockage.  The high fibre diet ensures that the guts keep moving and, in doing so, stop a blockage developing.

Herbivores bodies are designed to have constant energy production from food.  If this stops then it may lead to low blood sugars.

These animals also rely on the naturally good bacteria in their gut to both break down food and prevent bad bacteria invading and causing them to become ill. If they don’t get grass or hay this bacteria will not get the fuel they require to survive and thrive and therefore could die, affecting digestion.

 

Guinea pigs, chinchillas and rabbits, as well as the aforementioned farm animals have continuously growing or erupting teeth. These teeth need to be ground down to prevent them overgrowing or becoming sharp next to the tongue or cheeks, causing damage. These animals must eat plenty of grass or hay as the movement of the teeth across this and each other allows them to become ground down.

If teeth do not grind down against each other appropriately they will become unevenly worn.  This uneven wear will make eating more difficult and prevent them getting adequate nutrition which can then lead to greater problems such as gut stasis, where the guts stop working.  It can also cause the teeth to develop sharp points which cut into the tongue or cheeks leading to severe pain.

 

How Much Hay do they Need?

The amount of hay needed depends what species your pet is. A rabbit requires 80 to 90% of their diet being hay or grass. A guinea pig, on the other hand, need slightly less than this; requiring approximately 70% of the diet being hay. The reason why these need less is that they must also eat fruit and vegetables daily to get enough vitamins C, which is not the case in rabbits. Fruit and veg will give some of the nutrients it Hay would otherwise and it also helps to grind down the teeth.

calm cat
A farm cat asleep on a large bale of haylage

It is often for that rabbits and guinea pigs should have approximately the same amount of hay during a day as their body size. However, rabbits and guinea pigs should have hay available throughout the day which is both clean and easily available for them to eat. This means that should be separated from the bedding.  Their bedding hay often has droppings and urine getting mixed in and therefore affecting not only is quality but reducing the likelihood of your pet wanting to eat it. For instance, you wouldn’t want to eat and go to toilet in the same room, and this is the same rabbits.

One way to do this is to provide hay in a hay net or a hay rack and keep this regularly topped up, checking is plenty of hay at very least twice a day. If out in a garden, remember these animals can eat grass which may even be healthier for them dependent on both the quality of hay and that the grass. This means they will need to have as much hay throughout the day. However, before giving your pets access a garden you must make sure you don’t have any poisonous plants throughout it.

If you do your pets could eat these and then become unwell. Alongside this, weed to killers can also be dangerous to make sure that you don’t use these on any grass that your pets may eat.

 

Other animals have slightly different requirements for hay. Horses, sheep and cattle all need about 2.5% of their bodyweight in hay each day. This does, however, depend on how much grass they have access to as well as whether horses are ridden, and how much, and if the cattle or sheep are pregnant or producing milk. It also depends on the amount of water within the hay.

Some horses are fed haylage rather than hay which contains more water and therefore they will need to have a higher weight to accommodate the weight of the water. Many cows and sheep are fed silage which again weighs more than hay due to the water within it and so need more than that. Realistically, the best way to feed hay is just to give a slight excess of it unless the animal is overweight at which stage, it should be reduced slightly until that animal no longer gains weight or, have a healthy weight.

 

Types of Hay

The main types of hay a Timothy hay and alfalfa hay.

Alfalfa hay is much higher in energy so is great for young and growing animals.  But it can lead to obesity in older animals. It is recommended guinea pigs, chinchillas and rabbits switch to Timothy hay as adults in most cases.

There are also other types of hay such as Oak hay which can be fed instead of meadow or timothy hay to horses. Oak hay is good for overweight horses due to it’s fewer calories.

There is also meadow hay. This tends to be finer. Whilst it is great for bedding in small mammals, it’s not the best for feeding. Meadow hay isn’t the best feeder hay as it easier to eat.  Though this sounds beneficial, it means it grinds his teeth down less as it takes less time to eat. As a result, it’s poorer for dental health.

Sometimes the best option is to buy hay baled with a mix of grasses creating several types of hay within one bale.  Often this type of hay is obtained from the farm rather than from a pet store.

 

Pre-packaged hay designed for small mammals can come with other ingredients mixed with it. A common one is Dandelion’s which both improves the taste and with picky animals but can help with kidney disorders especially if alongside Marigold. This is seen with Burgess hay. Often adding things to hay can also improve how well your pet eats it and therefore can help those picky eaters.  Other manufacturers add in Carrots and Apples.  These extra flavours improve how well some animals eat the hay and thus improve their health.  Along with that, it encourages foraging behaviour and thus is good for enrichment.

Burgess Dandelion and Marigold Hay when out of packaging

One thing to look for is the stem length.

To aid grinding down the teeth, and to improve their guts, long stem hay is advised. This is where the grass was longer when cut and has not been shredded down further.

A large proportion of the good quality hay in pet stores is now sold like this though not all of it. The aforementioned Burgess Dandelion and Marigold hay is cut to a shorter length. This may be good for those pets with longterm dental issues (which grinding more won’t help) whereby they can’t chew well.  However, short-stemmed hay will not wear down the teeth as well so it’s weighing up the pros and cons of each type of hay.

My own guinea pig has Burgess Dandelion and Marigold hay and he has had no dental problems. But, Carl has had urinary tract issues so the benefits of this of this hay is worthwhile.

 

What should I look out For with hay?

Hay should be sweet smelling and not be too dusty.

With horses, dusty hay is often soaked in water, especially for horses with COPD.  Soaking hay reduces it’s nutritional quality and, in most cases, it should not be left to soak for longer than 10 minutes.

Soaking hay isn’t a technique used with small animals and, instead, buying dust extracted hay is the best option. Dust extracted hay is recommended as small animals have sensitive airways so dust is likely to irritate.

It is important to make sure there is no mould in the hay, whatever the species. Something else look for is whether or not there is Ragwort (Jacobaea vulgaris) in the hay. Ragwort is a very poisonous plant and is well known to cause liver damage in horses, farm animals and humans. I have not heard reports of whether or not it causes this in rodents and rabbits however, I feel that the likelihood is that it will. Therefore, if a bale of hay contains any rag worked I strongly suggest that you not only discard the whole bail without feeding it to your pet but, also contact the suppliers immediately to ensure they investigate this further as they potentially need to recall the whole batch.

The bright yellow ragwort plant. Watch out for it when dried in amongst hay

Mould should also not be in a bale of hay. Mouldy hay causes respiratory diseases but can cause issues to the guts as well and make your pet very unwell. Therefore, like you’ve rag worked is in a bale, I suggest that you discard the bail and contact the suppliers ASAP.

 

The colour of the hay depends on its age, when it was cut, the type of the hay and its quality. Usually, hay should be slightly green coloured however as said this does vary. The main thing easily is sweet smelling as this is a sign of not only good quality but also the lack of mould.

 

Alternatives to Hay

Many people are allergic to hay.

Alternatives to hay depend on the species. Horses often are given hayage as an alternative. This is higher in energy and is, therefore, more likely to cause obesity and so may be avoided in overweight horses. However, haylage may be much lower in dust, but I have experiences with mould within it.

 

Cattle sheep and goats tend to be fed silage which is very acidic. This has been partially fermented and should not really be fed to small animals.

 

In most cases, guinea pigs, rabbits and chinchillas should be fed hay. There is an alternative called ReadiGrass which is partially dried grass. Realistically though, if you are allergic to hay you’re likely allergic to this.  It is not suitable to use instead of hay due to it being very high in calcium and energy which increases the risk of obesity. However, ReadiGrass is great as an occasional treat.

In summary

The main take-home message is that guinea pigs, rabbits, chinchillas and herbivorous farm animals need hay or grass as a main part of the diet. Hay aids both dental and digestive health.

Unless animals are overweight, they ideally should be offered hay continuously. This is definitely the case in rabbits, guinea pigs and chinchillas and if these become overweight the best option is to reduce their pellets or muesli feed.

There are several types of hay such as meadow, Timothy, oat and alfalfa hay. It is important that you avoid hay containing lots of dust or any mould or Ragwort in it.

Freshwater should always be provided alongside hay. If your animal stops eating hay you must seek veterinary advice straight away. Also, ensure that the supplied with hay offer before such as within a hay rack or hay net to prevent it becoming mixed with their droppings or urine.

 

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Fourteen Signs of Pain in Guinea Pigs

Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus) are very common pets.  The interactions between themselves and people and them being easy to tame means they’re often sought after as pets.

Guinea Pigs are naturally prey animals and to stop themselves being caught by predators they hide signs of pain and illness really well, similar to the rabbit.  When scared, guinea pigs tend to freeze, a process known as tonic immobility, rather than show obvious behaviours of pain or fear.

Pain in guinea pigs often shows as very different to our own people often overlook it and don’t usually realise it’s due to pain.  People naturally associate how humans react to pain and expect painful animals to cry out which often is not the case.  When people don’t recognise the signs of pain in their pet they often misinterpret it, sometimes believing their pet doesn’t feel pain in the same level or some things which are painful to us don’t hurt them. Usually, this is not the case, they experience pain just demonstrate it in a different way. Species such as cats, dogs, and rabbits all experience pain the same but the signs they show are unique to the species (though there are some similarities present).

 

Though Guinea Pigs are common pets, as well as sadly being used as lab animals in potentially painful procedures, the symptoms they show when in pain still haven’t been fully studied and are often unknown.  Throughout this blog I will explore already known or highly suspected the signs of pain in guinea pigs  I’m hoping this will help you identify if your guinea pig is ever in pain.

1.Change in Posture

This is a very consistent sign and shown in various ways depending where the pain in a guinea pig is.

Having the back arched is seen with other species such as the dog.  This is seen if they have belly ache for instance if their guts are not working properly or they’ve had surgery like neutering.  They stand or walk with their bodies very tense and their spines curved over making their back appear rounded rather than flat.

Changes in posture are also seen when lying.  Normally guinea pigs lay with their back legs tucked under them. Pain in guinea pigs from their spine, belly or legs may lead to them holding one or both back legs stretched out behind them or splayed to the side.

Remember healthy guinea pigs sometimes alter their position even when not in pain.  When looking for signs of pain you need see if they are in this position lot or are also showing other signs of pain.

  1. Squeaking/ Screaming (AKA Vocalising)

Sometimes, with sudden pain, guinea pigs may make loud and high-pitched squeaks which sound different and often lasting longer than their normal lower pitched noises.

They don’t always cry out when in pain, but sudden, intense types of pain rather than aching pains can cause this.  One example is if a sore part of their skin is touched or if they hit a sore leg against something.

If you’re only trying to identify pain through them making noises, you’ll miss it most of the time.  Lack of noise doesn’t mean their pain is less severe.  Pains which are grumbling away often don’t lead to them crying out.

  1. Eating less and Weight Loss

When you’re feeling unwell you don’t want to eat as much and, to some extent, that’s the same in Guinea Pigs.  Guinea Pigs enjoy eating and spend much of their day eating.

When in pain, guinea pigs often eat less but may still readily accept treats they like when offered.

Guinea Pigs may still eat treats when in pain

 

Guinea Pigs eating less usually isn’t noticed instantly, usually, it’s only noticed the next time you feed them where you will likely find more leftovers than usual.  Monitoring eating as a sign of pain can be difficult and inaccurate because you’re likely to only realise they’re in pain after several hours have passed by which point they may have improved or have suffered in a lot of pain in the meantime, adversely affecting their welfare.

  1. Drinking Less

Similar to eating, pain in guinea pigs may be seen as them being uninterested in drinking.  This doesn’t necessarily mean they stop drinking altogether, but, they drink less and noticed when you change their water.  Therefore, this sign, like with eating less, may not be that helpful by the time you notice.

Noticing your guinea pig eating or drinking less and possibly losing weight gives you a clue they’re not feeling 100%.  Once you notice this behaviour change it’s worth looking for other signs of pain to help decide if they are in pain or what else is occurring.

  1. Unkempt Coat and Grooming Less

Any animal in pain tends to stop grooming themselves either because they don’t well enough due to the pain or their pain worsens in positions needed to properly groom themselves.  As Guinea Pigs don’t groom consistentlyand may groom themselves when hiding, this sign is difficult to spot.

With pain in Guinea Pigs it’s not always easy to notice a reduction in the time spent doing a relatively sporadic behaviour.

The first way you may notice your guinea pigs aren’t grooming fully is due to their coat looking unkempt.  It may be dirtier than usual, full of dandruff or, if long-haired, there may be more knots in it.  A guinea pig’s coat being unkempt takes a while to develop and become visible with the guinea pig being in pain for some time (usually longer than twelve hours) before their hair gets to the state where it’s noticeable, before then there often won’t be a visible change in the coat at all.

Guinea pigs may be in sore when touched
  1. Moving Less and Lying More

When in pain, any movements can worsen the pain so animals tend to stay still to avoid further pain.  Pain is also tiring leading to your guinea pig lying down and sleeping more.

Along with lying and moving less to avoid pain, your guinea pig will be scared due to the pain.  When guinea pigs are scared they tend to freeze their body.

Pain in guinea pigs are likely to make them quieter if you’re around due to increased fear that you’ll pick them up or touch them and them naturally hiding pain when in front of people.  Therefore, some will act normally if you’re watching them for signs of pain.

Guinea pigs moving less could be for many reasons such as stress from the surgery or due to medication side effects.  For instance, the pain killer, Buprenorphine, causes Guinea Pigs to lay more even when they’re in less pain so this can become confusing. Therefore, guinea pigs being quiet should not be interpreted as them always being in pain.

  1. Writhing/ Abdominal Contractions

Like in Rabbits, the signs of pain in guinea pigs are very subtle.  One of these is them writhing and having abdominal contractions.  Some abdominal contractions, to make it more difficult, can be normal in Guinea Pigs, however, these tend to worsen with pain.  Looking at them carefully and seeing contractions and them stretching their body out at the same time is likely due to pain, especially if they do it often.

  1. Flinching

Most animals flinch when in pain.  This is a sudden involuntary movement where the animal is trying to move away from whatever is causing the pain.  This may be from you if you try to touch them or they could be appearing to just flinch if nothing is near them due to pain within the body rather than just in the skin.  Flinching is more common with sudden and shocking pain rather than a duller constant pain.

Eating less is a sign of pain
When in pain, Guinea pigs often eat less

 

  1. Shaking

Pain in guinea pigs, either due to fear or adrenaline, may cause them to shake.  Shaking may be very difficult to see as it is only very subtle.

As shaking is a very subtle potentially due to not only pain but also medication side effects and stress, it is not the most reliable of signs.  Due to this if you see your guinea pig shaking you should keep an eye on them and monitor them for other problems to try and work out what their problem is.

  1. Paying Attention to a Painful Area

Like ourselves, if a guinea pig has a painful area they will tend to look at it or touch it.  Your guinea pig may groom, lick, scratch or chew at that area more which may be noticed by them having wet hair or it could even lead to the skin or hair being damaged in some cases.

  1. Moving slower

Pain in Guinea Pigs tends to worsen when they move.  Therefore, as a result, they tend to move slower.

Guinea pigs will tend to move slower, potentially an altered posture and moving more stiffly.  However, medications causing sedation such as painkillers or anaesthetics may cause your guinea pigs to move slower even without pain so they should be monitored for other signs of pain.

  1. Limping

Limping is only a sign of pain if the pain is in their legs or sometime in their spine.  Lameness is usually due to pain, especially if it suddenly comes on, however in some cases it could be due to other problems such nerve or muscle problems.

Whichever leg your guinea pig is limping on is likely the one causing the pain. If they’re in pain with several legs, then the one they’re limping on is likely the most painful.

Not all guinea pigs in pain will be limping.  Also, even if they are in pain and are limping they may show no further signs of pain than the limping.

Metacam is tasty!
Carl nibbling on the Metacam  (a painkiller) Syringe

 

  1. Cage Bar- Biting

    Rodents normally chew but this can worsen or change when stressed.

    Most happy, healthy guinea pigs don’t chew their cage bars a lot unless they are stressed or bored.  If they suddenly start cage-biting it’s a sign something isn’t normal.

    Once they start cage-biting it is important for you to find the cause and try to treat it or correctly alter their behaviour whenever possible.

    Though you can buy foul-tasting liquids to spray on cage bars to prevent chewing.  This just acts as a deterrent and is unlikely to stop them chewing in the long term.  Also, chewing is only a sign of another underlying problem in a lot of cases so you need to discover what this is, correct it and then try to resolve their chewing if it continues.

  2.  Grinding Teeth (Bruxism)

 

Guinea Pigs sometimes grind their teeth when their mouths or teeth are sore.  This is usually the case if their teeth are overgrown or not meeting properly so some grow more than others.

If your guinea pig is grinding their teeth you need to see your vet ASAP as issues with their teeth/ mouth stop them eating properly, leading to other health problems.

The summary

The signs of pain in Guinea Pigs are very subtle and still poorly understood.

Unlike rabbits, mice, rats and other species, no long has studied the effects of pain on facial expression to aid with grading pain.  There are some easier signs to detect such as limping or crying out but otherwise you need to focus on subtle signs which, each on their own, could be unrelated to pain by being related to behavioural or medical issues or are a result of medication side effects.

The best way to detect signs of pain in guinea pigs is to look out for all potential signs and, if they show any, then try to identify if others are present, monitor them and look for the cause.

 

If your guinea pig show signs of pain you should take them to your vet.  Your vet can help to work out if they are in pain, where this is and then diagnose and treat them.

 

With Guinea Pigs, just being stressed from pain or them eating less can cause other health problems, some of which may be fatal.  This means trying to resolve pain not only improves your guinea pig’s welfare but, if you don’t they could become very ill.

Finally, the signs of pain fit into a couple of big groups, normal behaviours they have stopped doing (such as being active or eating) and pain behaviours they have started (such as writhing or sleeping).  It must be remembered that Guinea Pigs hide pain when people are around, so it can be very hard to spot; even if you only see a pain behaviour performed a couple of times it may suggest a major problem.

Final Words

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